Pyrosequencing is considered to be one of the first of the second-generation sequencing technologies. It was commercialized through Roche's 454 sequencing instrument, and allowed scientists to garner large amounts of sequencing data in a single run.
Unlike polony sequencing, pyrosequencing falls under sequencing by synthesis, meaning the sequence is resolved while forming the sample's complementary strand. However, similar to polony sequencing, pyrosequencing uses emulsion PCR.
At its core, the pyrosequencing technique relies on the detection of pyrophosphate molecules that are released during DNA synthesis. This allows for the generation of light, which is then detected by a sensor.
In your typical dNTP molecule, there are three phosphate that are attached to the 5' carbon of the deoxyribose sugar. The first (which is attached to the sugar) is called the α-phophate. The next is β-phosphate and the last is γ-phosphate.
During replication, the α-phosphate of each incoming complementary nucleotide is joined enzymatically by a phosphodiester linkage to the 3'-OH group of the last nucleotide in the growing strand.
During this reaction, the β- and γ-phosphates are cleaved off in a unit called the pyrophosphate (PPi).
In second generation DNA sequence techniques, a cycle is established to resolve each nucleotide. Here is the cycle used in pyrosequencing:
After emulsion PCR is performed, each enriched bead is placed in one of the many picoliter-volume wells of the sequencing machine.
One of the four dNTP's is added. If the next sequence of the growing strand is complementary to the dXTP, PPi is released.
PPi reacts with ATP sufurylase, generating ATP. This reacts with luciferase to produce light. The flash of light is recorded by a camera - intensity is proportional to more dXTP's being added.
Here is the chemical reaction that takes place to generate light.
Any remaining deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dXTP) and ATP are degraded by apyrase and washed away.
This process is repeated from step 2 until all bases are sequenced.
The sequencing machines out in industry that use pyrosequencing includes Roche's 454 platform.
|GS Junior+||GS FLX Titanium XL+||GS FLX Titanium XLR70|
|Bases per run||~100,000||~1,000,000 shotgun||~1,000,000 shotgun|
|Read Length||~700 bp||Up to 1,000 bp||Up to 600 bp|
|Mode Read Length||700 bp||700 bp||450 bp|
|Run time||18 hours||23 hours||10 hours|
Some good points to pyrosequencing is the long read sizes, and fast run times. However, runs are expensive, and the homopolymer errors are frequent due to a low sensitivity.
Easy to understand and fun to read, Introducing Python is ideal for beginning programmers as well as those new to the language. Author Bill Lubanovic takes you from the basics to more involved and varied topics, mixing tutorials with cookbook-style code recipes to explain concepts in Python 3. End-of-chapter exercises help you practice what you learned.$ Check price
Command Line Kung Fu is packed with dozens of tips and practical real-world examples. You won't find theoretical examples in this book. The examples demonstrate how to solve actual problems. The tactics are easy to find, too. Each chapter covers a specific topic and groups related tips and examples together.$ Check price