Pyrosequencing is considered to be one of the first of the second-generation sequencing technologies. It was commercialized through Roche's 454 sequencing instrument, and allowed scientists to garner large amounts of sequencing data in a single run.
Unlike polony sequencing, pyrosequencing falls under sequencing by synthesis, meaning the sequence is resolved while forming the sample's complementary strand. However, similar to polony sequencing, pyrosequencing uses emulsion PCR.
At its core, the pyrosequencing technique relies on the detection of pyrophosphate molecules that are released during DNA synthesis. This allows for the generation of light, which is then detected by a sensor.
In your typical dNTP molecule, there are three phosphate that are attached to the 5' carbon of the deoxyribose sugar. The first (which is attached to the sugar) is called the α-phophate. The next is β-phosphate and the last is γ-phosphate.
During replication, the α-phosphate of each incoming complementary nucleotide is joined enzymatically by a phosphodiester linkage to the 3'-OH group of the last nucleotide in the growing strand.
During this reaction, the β- and γ-phosphates are cleaved off in a unit called the pyrophosphate (PPi).
In second generation DNA sequence techniques, a cycle is established to resolve each nucleotide. Here is the cycle used in pyrosequencing:
After emulsion PCR is performed, each enriched bead is placed in one of the many picoliter-volume wells of the sequencing machine.
One of the four dNTP's is added. If the next sequence of the growing strand is complementary to the dXTP, PPi is released.
PPi reacts with ATP sufurylase, generating ATP. This reacts with luciferase to produce light. The flash of light is recorded by a camera - intensity is proportional to more dXTP's being added.
Here is the chemical reaction that takes place to generate light.
Any remaining deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dXTP) and ATP are degraded by apyrase and washed away.
This process is repeated from step 2 until all bases are sequenced.
The sequencing machines out in industry that use pyrosequencing includes Roche's 454 platform.
|GS Junior+||GS FLX Titanium XL+||GS FLX Titanium XLR70|
|Bases per run||~100,000||~1,000,000 shotgun||~1,000,000 shotgun|
|Read Length||~700 bp||Up to 1,000 bp||Up to 600 bp|
|Mode Read Length||700 bp||700 bp||450 bp|
|Run time||18 hours||23 hours||10 hours|
Some good points to pyrosequencing is the long read sizes, and fast run times. However, runs are expensive, and the homopolymer errors are frequent due to a low sensitivity.
This book approaches system administration in a practical way and is an invaluable reference for both new administrators and experienced professionals. It details best practices for every facet of system administration, including storage management, network design and administration, email, web hosting, scripting, and much more.$ Check price
This is Volume 2 of Bioinformatics Algorithms: An Active Learning Approach. This book presents students with a light-hearted and analogy-filled companion to the author's acclaimed course on Coursera. Each chapter begins with an interesting biological question that further evolves into more and more efficiently solutions of solving it.$ Check price